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Edward Dayes

Edward Dayes (1763-1804) was a painter, draughtsman and printmaker, chiefly remembered for his topographical watercolours. He studied printmaking under William Pether and in the 1790s was active in supplying drawings for topographical publications and working up sketches by amateur artists, notably the antiquary James Moore. Thomas Girtin became a pupil of Dayes's in 1789, but the two men are alleged to have quarrelled because Dayes resented his pupil's success.

Edward Dayes

This extract about Dayes' visit to the area around Malhamdale and his comments on General Lambert are taken from:

The Works of the Late Edward Dayes: Containing An Excursion Through the Principal Parts of Derbyshire and Yorkshire, with Illustrative Notes by E.W. Brayley; Essays on Painting; Instructions for Drawing and Coloring Landscapes; and Professional Sketches of Modern Artists.
By Edward Dayes, Edward Wedlake Brayley
Published by Mrs. Dayes, 1805

Title

 

THE great object of this pedestrian Excursion, was to visit the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire ......

..........Hence to Gargrave the country is pleasant; and the Leeds Canal winding through the meadows, increases the interest of the views. Entering on the moors at Cold Coniston, I proceeded to the village of Helyfield, then to Long Preston, an opulent place, where the people appear cheerful, their houses clean, and every thing carries with it an air of comfort. Great quantities of callico are made here. This place is at least a mile in length.

To the left of the road, on the very verge of the horizon, is seen Pendle Hill, a remarkable feature in this part of the county. Approaching Settle, Ingleborough Mountain appears in view, and the top of Pennygent. From Skipton it is sixteen miles to .....

SETTLE

THIS town is seated in the midst of barren hills, which present their rocky fronts to the eye from all points. Romantic as the situation may be, the town itself is equally so; the houses being the most whimsical, picturesque, and odd, any where to be met with. The market-place, in particular, had, to me, the strangest effect imaginable; it not appearing like English nature. The evening being fine and clear, the lengthened shadows of the houses were swept over the foreground, reducing the whole to one expansive dark; except where, here and there, on its verge, a small group of figures glittered, from an elegant touch of the departing rays of the sun. Full in the light appeared the market-house, raised on an arcade, above which, in a gallery that leads to different dwellings, were seen various people, busily busily employed in humble occupations. Add to the whole, by way of back-ground, a tremendous cliff, 300 feet high, which impends fearfully over the back of the town, in the most terrific manner, and some idea of the scene may be formed. The breadth and simplicity of the light and shade, contributed to aid the beauty of the view; the great mass of dark on the fore-ground being supported by another, prevented its becoming a spot. The whole of the objects in the light, had their local colors rendered deep and rich, by a gleam of the evening sun, which prevented the shadow from cutting abrupt and hard against the light, and giving the whole great mellowness ; the general effect receiving vigor from the sparkling of some light draperies.1.

In Settle, many of the houses about the market- place, have their ascent to the upper story on the outside; and where the cliff, or scar, which hangs frowning over the town, can be brought I into the view, a subject highly picturesque will be obtained. On the whole, had I come all this way without meeting one object worthy of my attention, I should have been satisfied for my trouble, with what I found here.

In this town was born THOMAS PROCTOR, whose merit as a sculptor, justly places him among the first of the British artists. His works, though few, are uncommonly fine. Whoever has his model of Ixion, is in possession of a treasure, which ought to be guarded with the greatest vigilance; it being, without dispute, one of the first productions of the British school; and would have done honor to the best times of Greece or Rome.
He was an exemplary and mighty genius, and his merits have been celebrated by Mr. West in one of his discourses. His fine group of Diomede devoured by his Horses, would have become a point of national taste; but, alas! he dashed it to pieces in a fit of despair, because he could not procure fifty pounds for that sublime labor. He died like Raphael, in the meridian of his days, and full of honor. I am happy at having it in my power to pay this small tribute to the memory of a worthy man, and an old acquaintance. He sunk, most unaccountably, under the public neglect, when a small sum would have preserved a valuable life. But peace to his manes ; and may his spirit find that rest in eternity, it was a stranger to here !

Cross the bridge over the river Ribble, which flows near Settle, and at about the distance of one mile, is .....

GIGGLESWICK

HERE is a prodigious Scar, or ledge of rocks, that goes by the name of the village, and whose bold cliffs rise above the road, accompanying it to a considerable extent. Under these craggs, above some lime-kilns, by the road side, is a Well that ebbs and flows at uncertain periods, sometimes three and even four or five times within the hour. This is considered as a great natural curiosity, the place being at least thirty miles from the sea.2. In Giggleswick is a noted and well-endowed Free-School, founded by a Mr. Bridges

With a guide, I made an excursion over the moors to.....

MALHAM-COVE

Pronounced Maum-Cove, by the natives. This is a stupendous mass of lime-stone rock, something in the form of an amphitheatre, which crosses a valley like a bridge, presenting its bare and almost uniform front to the eye. A human figure, placed at the base of this immense mass, is reduced to a mere point, by comparison, the central summit of the rock, which is the lowest part, being, according to Mr. Hurtley, 288 feet high.

At the foot of the Cove, a current of water issues out, called Air-Head; it being, in all probability, one of the streams which feed that river. In floods, the subterranean passage is not sufficient to give vent to all the water, which then pours in a cataract from the top of the rocks, forming a most " grand and magnificent cascade." This curious phenomenon is seldom seen by travellers in the summer months." If the wind blows pretty strongly from the south, or south-west, the whole front of this bluff and age-tinted battlement, standing unsheltered and exposed, very little if any of the expanded current reaches the bottom ; but, driven back into the air, or against the projections of the rock, hath the appearance of a curled, foaming mist, impetuously revolving, and dissipated as a whirlwind."4. Such a spectacle must afford a high gratification; and it must add greatly to the grandeur of the scene, the almost uniform surface of the rocks wanting such a break.

Passing through the village of Malham, which is composed of a few scattered houses, some of which afford good studies, as they are very picturesque, one mile brought me to.....

GORDALE-SCAR

HERE a stupendous mass of rocks forms a ravine, through the bosom of which flows a considerable stream. This opening contracts till you are led into a corner, where every object conspires to produce one of the grandest spectacles in nature. The rocks dart their bold and rugged fronts to the heavens, and impending fearfully over the head of the spectator, seem to threaten his immediate destruction. Here rock is piled on rock in the most terrific majesty; and what greatly improves the grandeur of the scene, is an impetuous Cataract, that rushes down their dark centre, tearing up, with its irresistible force, the very foundations of the earth. Good heavens, what a scene, how awful! how sublime! Imagine blocks of lime-stone rising to the immense height of two hundred yards, and in some places projecting upwards of twenty over their bases; add to this the roaring of the cataract, and the sullen murmurs of the wind that howls around ; and something like an idea of the savage aspect of this place may be conceived.

Here the timid will find an end put to their journey: myself and guide, with some difficulty, ascended the craggs up the fall, keeping the water to the right hand, and arrived at a large opening, where massy fragments of rocks are scattered about in the most wild and fantastic manner.
Above, through a large hole, at the height of twenty or thirty yards, poured down the collected force of the whole stream, which forms the cascade below. This is, perhaps, the finest part of the whole place, and should by no means be neglected, however difficult the ascent to it may be. Retreat hence was impossible; we therefore scrambled to the top of the rocks, a height of not less than three hundred yards from the stream below: here, on looking back into the yawning gulph we had passed, the words of Shakespeare came forcibly into my mind:

Stand still —- how fearful
And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eye so low!
—- I’ll look no more, Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight
Topple down headlong.

The opening in the rocks, which gives passage to the stream, is said to have been caused by the force of a great body of water, which collected in a sudden thunder storm, some time about the year 1730. The lover of drawing will be much delighted with this place: immensity and horror are its inseparable companions, uniting together to form subjects of the most awful cast. The very soul of Salvator Rosa would hover with delight over these regions of confusion. 5.

None of the passes in North Wales equals this; the water tumbling down its bosom, giving it greatly the superiority

A few years ago, two men returning from a cock- match at Kirkby-Malham, in the autumnal season, were surprised by a fog, which came on suddenly, when unfortunately they missed their way, and one of them, William Hartley, without having time to utter a single word, slipped into this yawning womb of death. His companion, alarmed and terrified, dared no longer to walk erect, but, examining with his hands the way he took, got back to Malham. Hartley's body was found next morning, lodged in a bush of ivy, more than half way down the dreadful precipice, it having fallen upwards of seventy yards. Hence I proceeded to

MALHAM TARN

THIS is a small lake on the moors; but, from being destitute of wood, it is by no means an object of interest to the artist. I must own I looked upon it with indifference, notwithstanding it has been called, in the language of poetry, "A Lake embosomed in the cloud-capt mountains."
Another disadvantage is, that the mountains that environ the water, are too far removed from its margin to appear grand. This will effectually prevent its ever rivaling the Lakes of Cumberland or Westmoreland. There are several plantations in the vicinity, but the immediate banks of the lake are not bold enough to show them to advantage.
Tarn House, on its banks, the property of Lord Ribblesdale, is chiefly used in the sporting season ; the moors abounding with foxes, hares, and black game. In the lake are excellent trout and perch.

The water of this lake runs out in a small stream, which, at about the distance of a mile. suddenly sinks into the earth, among a heap of loose stones, and is lost. The country people, however, affirm it to be the same that issues out at Malham - Cove, and forms the head of the river Aire; and also that which has forced a passage through the rocks at Gordale.

These moors are truly wild and romantic; Nature here sits in solitary grandeur. The hills arc lofty and green to their tops, and rise in irregular heaps on all sides, in their primeval state of pasture. They afford excellent feed for cattle, making them uncommonly fat, and that expeditiously. Vast tracts are enclosed with stone walls, for the purpose of sheltering the sheep from the severity of the weather in the winter season.

It would be highly imprudent for a stranger to travel these moors without a guide, as he would risk the danger of perishing for want; or the probable chance of breaking his neck down some precipice in the dark, or from being caught in a fog. The shepherds themselves know the way only by the hills, or from large masses of stones collected together upon some eminence.

At Carlton Hall, in the parish of Kirkby-Malham-Dale, was born,, on the 7th of September, 1619, that most intrepid and skilful Parliamentary General, JOHN LAMBERT. The estate had belonged to the family for several generations. His father had been a Justice of the Peace; and by his third wife, Ann Pigot, had the subject of this brief memoir. At thirteen years of age, he was so unfortunate as to lose his father. In 1639 he married Frances, daughter of Sir William Lister, of Thornton, in this county.

Whitelocke says, he studied the law some time in one of the Inns of Court. If so, his ardent love of liberty must have early led him from that pursuit, as he was engaged, with his relations and neighbours, at the beginning of the contest, on the popular side.

To enter into the minute events of his life, would be to give a history of the contest between King Charles the First and the Parliament; all that I intend, is merely a sketch of his character
When Charles, by entering the Parliament House with an armed force, had given cause to the Members justly to doubt their personal security, each party became anxious to provide for their safety, by securing the garrisons and arsenals throughout the kingdom : for it is proved, by the joint testimony of the writers on the Civil War, that the great cause of dispute was not about matters of religion, but who should have power over the militia.

The first hostile movement was on the King's going from York to take possession of Hull, where Sir John Hotham, the governor, in obedience to the command of the Parliament, refused him admittance. The King being disappointed, complained of Hotham to the Parliament, and summoned the nobility and gentry of the county to attend him at York. This meeting was uncommonly numerous; but, after the summons, they were refused admittance to the royal presence, with the exception of a few, and of those the King made a demand on the county of a guard of horse. This conduct lost him the affection of many of his Yorkshire subjects; and, on this occasion, many petitions were presented to the King, in which Mr. Lambert was concerned.

On the 22d of August, 1642, about six o'clock in the evening of a very stormy and tempestuous day, the royal standard was erected at Nottingham, says Clarendon, and the demons of discord and civil war were at once let loose on the nation.

To a people it should never become an object, what individual or family may reign over them; but that the government they live under, be founded on equity, should be a great consideration. In the course of human events, persons, or families, may perish, and houses cease to govern; but the great principles of Liberty and Justice should be deeply engraven on the hearts of mankind, till the utmost verge of time.

The trust reposed in Monarchs is of so extensive and important a nature, that the slightest error is attended with the most fatal consequences. Like cities under the influence of an earthquake, thousands are buried in their fall. The unhappy Charles, though possessed of many private virtues, by endeavoring to change a free government into an absolute monarchy, began a Revolution, under which the nations of Europe at present groan. By his misconduct, multitudes were induced to leave this country for America; not with a dislike to the man only, but with a settled hatred to the office of King. The great province of New England was peopled at that period; and every one knows, that it was at Boston where hostilities first commenced; and that the descendants of those who had emigrated, were the most strenuous in their opposition. The consequence may he easily traced; the flame spread to France, where it overturned that Monarchy; and when the effects will cease the Almighty only knows ! Every thing has its cause; even the above great event was preceded by another important one, which prepared the way. Henry the Seventh, too proud to claim the Throne by descent, and too timid to demand it by right of conquest, well knew that it was the power of the great Barons which had made him King. Their power was such, that any one of them could alarm, and the combination of two or three, overthrow him. Hence it became necessary to use policy, rather than force, to break their power. To obtain his end, he framed the statutes of population; the statute against retainers; and that for alienation. The first, by its effect, increased agriculture, by ordering that all farm-houses, to which one hundred acres of ground and upwards were attached, should be kept up for ever: this rendered the yeomanry in a certain degree free of the Lords, who thereby lost their foot soldiers. The act against retainers, prevented the Lords having in their service the younger sons of good families, who were men of spirit, and well skilled in arms, and who served them as cavalry: this being forbidden under heavy penalties, deprived them of another prop to faction. Hence they became inactive, prodigal, and luxurious; and their immense estates, though more than enough for country hospitality, became too small for the refined pleasures of the town, and the expenses of a court. But the statute of alienation enabling them to sell, or mortgage, without heavy fines, effectually destroyed their power; and accelerated the fall of the old Barons by tenure. By these various means, Henry the Seventh increased his own power with that of the Commons, the Nobility being the only sufferers. The dissolution of the monasteries under his son, threw a vast property into the public market; and the strides which commerce was then making, raised up purchasers in the wealthy merchant and trader.

Let us mark the sequel. James the First had come from a country where the whole power was divided between the King and a turbulent Nobility. Full of the notions of the divinity and extent of royal power, he came to England to govern. Unfortunately, he communicated these notions to his son Charles, and every means were used through both reigns, to increase the power of the Crown. But as the Crown increased in power, the people increased in wealth and power also; and as their property was the result of their industry, they rightly saw, that no power on earth was authorised to deprive them of it without their own consent, either direct or implied. Hence, from the people asserting the right of property, against the state terms "prerogative power," commenced those disputes in which Mr. Lambert was so materially engaged. 6. When Lord Fairfax was appointed commander in chief of the Parliamentary forces in the northern district, he was joined by Mr. Lambert; his brother-in-law, Mr. Lister, of Thornton ; and his relation, Mr. Lister of Westby. Both these gentlemen were killed within a few weeks from the date of their commissions. The former, Captain William Lister, was shot with a musket bullet in the head, in the battle of Tadcaster, on Wednesday, the 7th of December. 7. How the latter came by his death is not certainly known.

Mr. Lambert's first public employment was the command of a regiment of dragoons, in which station his conduct was marked by moderation, bravery, and skill. The moderation of the Parliament Generals gained them the good will of the people; while, according to Hume, (the apologist for the Stewarts,) "Prince Rupert, negligent of the people, fond of the soldiers, indulged his troops in unwarrantable liberties." Wilmot, "a man of dissolute manners, promoted the same spirit of disorder;" and Goring carried it to a pitch of enormity. Wherever he went, universal spoil and havock were committed; and the whole country was laid waste by the rapine of the soldiers."

Mr. Lambert was next appointed Commissary General of the northern army. It would be tedious to pursue a military narrative in the detail; it will be sufficient to observe, that he was concerned in most of the engagements of any note, both in England and Scotland, from the battle of Marston Moor, till he defeated Sir G. Booth at Northwich, after the death of Cromwell.

When he was appointed Major General of the five northern counties, and possessed, at the same time, power of jurisdiction the most unlimited and extensive, he is by all allowed to have used that power "with great wisdom, moderation, and justice."8.

It appears that he aided Cromwell in his views to become Protector; but when the Protector lost sight of the public good, in private aggrandizement and ambition, in wishing to assume the title of King, then he opposed him with his greatest vigor. He even refused to take the oath required by the Assembly and Council, to be faithful to the government. Cromwell, on this disappointment, deprived him of all his commissions, by which he lost all rank and power; but, from motives of prudence, granted him a pension of 2000£ a year. On this Mr. Lambert retired to his house at Wimbleton, where he amused himself as a florist.

The conduct of Lambert on this occasion was truly great; living in the strictest habits of intimacy with Cromwell, surrounded, as it were, with honors and emoluments, by his opposition, he sacrificed them all. On the very same principles, therefore, by which he resisted the arbitrary measures of the King, did he now, to his eternal honor, exert himself against, the encroachments of the Protector. This is perhaps, one of the greatest and most brilliant; acts of his life. In the first instance he opposed the King; in the second, he sacrificed a brave and heroic friend at the altar of Justice. To obtain a victory, may require skill and courage; but to be greatly just, marks the highest point of human excellence.

In the first Parliament called by the new Protector, after the death of Cromwell, Mr. Lambert was returned for Aldborough, by the title of John, Lord Lambert; in this station he appeared an active supporter of the rights of the people. His opposition to the new House of Peers causing some trouble, a miscreant offered to assassinate Lambert; but, to the honor of Richard, he refused to purchase dominion with blood ! Shortly afterwards, the Protector resigned an office, his talents and power were unequal to.

The confused instability of the times soon occasioned the recall of the exiled Prince Charles. But this procedure was attended by mystery, intrigue, and the most abandoned dissimulation in its agents, to whom Charles owed but little for such service.

Monk's character appeals strangely equivocal, and treacherous to both parties. He first served the King, and was taken prisoner at Nantwich. Whitelocke says of him, " Who afterwards served the Parliament, and this was his first turn." For the Parliament he went to Ireland, where he betrayed his trust, and deserted to the royal party; but he was shortly after taken, and committed to the Tower. He then took the covenant and negative oath, obtained his liberty, and was a second time sent to Ireland with a military command: but he returned home in disgrace, and his conduct was questioned before the House of Commons, who disapproved of his making peace with O'Neal. "Monk was much discontented at the proceeding in the business in relation to him, especially at some passages reflecting upon his honour and fidelity." After this he was employed in Scotland, from which place he returned, finally to establish his character and his fortune, by compleating his bargain with Charles the Second.

Lambert, quick to conceive, and prompt to act, two great qualities in a soldier, had defeated Sir George Booth at Northwich, for which service he received the thanks of the Parliament, and a jewel of 1000£ value. He next appeared at Newcastle against Monk; and had Lambert's advice of fighting him been followed, Monk might have been disappointed of receiving his wages for bringing in the King. Whitelocke, who appears clearly to have read the character of Monk, recommended to Fleetwood to treat with the Prince, and thereby to save their friends, and prevent any convulsions in the nation.

By Monk's intrigues, Lambert was committed to the Tower, from which he soon made his escape; but was again taken at Daventry, by In-goldsby, a man who had sat as one of the Judges on the trial of Charles the First, and who was now a flaming Royalist.9. While in confinement, he was returned Member for Rippon, on the calling of a new Parliament.

Mr. Lambert, not having had any concern in the trial or execution of the late King, naturally expected to be included in the general pardon and oblivion; but, notwithstanding this, he was tried for rebellion, and arraigned at the King's Bench, "For having levied war against his Majesty, in several parts of the kingdom." This charge would have equally applied to the greater part of his subjects. 10. On his trial, he neither denied the charge, nor was he mad enough enthusiastically to insult by a frantic and useless justification. The King thought proper to spare his life; but unmercifully sentenced him to endure exile and confiscation. His property in this neighbourhood was purchased for him by his relations. At this period he was forty-three years old, and had a wife and three children.

He endured his fate with a manly and philosophical resignation for nearly thirty years, as a prisoner in the Island of Guernsey. As Mr. Lambert appears to have been alive after the Revolution, what a glorious triumph he must have enjoyed, on hearing that the male branches of that wretched family were driven from the Throne for ever ; and for those very crimes he himself had opposed, and for which opposition he was then unjustly suffering ! Monk, without sincerity, became an Earl; the gallant and honest Lambert, an exile; if banishment from a vicious and corrupt court can be termed so. Fortunately for him, he was possessed of an elegant turn of mind- Reading, and the sciences, had occupied much of his time, and became a great support :to him while under confinement at Castle Cornet. Joined to his taste and talents for botany, "He was looked upon as a great physician by the people of Guernsey, who constantly resorted to the Castle to consult him on every disorder they were afflicted with ; for at that time 'there was no physician nor surgeon on the Island ; and he gave a number of useful receipts to a gentleman residing in the country, who was known to many persons now living." 11. Granger classes him among the honorary artists : " He painted flowers, (says he,) which he was also fond of cultivating."

His two sons died before their father. His only daughter, Frances, named after her grandmother, became heir-general at her father's death, in 1701. She married Sir John Middleton, Bart, of Belsay Castle, in Northumberland.

From Settle I proceeded to Askrigg, a distance of about twenty-four miles. For the first three miles, RIBBLEDALE presents a most rich and romantic appearance. The cottages are highly picturesque, and oddly shaped. The river murmurs playfully along, forming several agreeable cascades, which both delight and amuse the mind of the traveller. Between Stainforth and Horton, to the right of the road, is situated a grotesque sort of amphitheatre of lime-stone rocks, called Dowgill-Scar, above which is occasionally seen the grim face of Pennygent..................

 

1. So much depends on a judicious light and shade, that many objects will highly delight in the morning, which may appear uninteresting in the evening, or vice versa . Yet, notwithstanding, this the power of imitating the lovely scenery of Nature with " accuracy," may be acquired by reflection, and by an attention to pictures, or drawings, remarkable in that particular, such as those of Titian and Rubens, and works of many modern artists: I do not mean those full of affectation, as if they were illuminated by a par- iial flash of gunpowder: such trash may pass with some for true art. Many little shadows joined, will always produce a mass; this may be done by clouds, &c. Any natural means may be resorted to, to enable the student to unite his shadow with shadow, and light with light, for the purpose of acquiring masses of each, in his work. " Even if" he " should not excel in execution," (which, however, may be expected from proper instruction, and a moderate practice,) then the student may comfort himself with the reflection, that Claude, and many other great artists, were without it; and also that it is not the first, nor, by any means, the most essential, part of even landscape painting.

2. In different parts of England, are two or three other ebbing and flowing Wells, of similar character to this at Giggleswick. The most celebrated is that between Chapel-in-thc-Frith and Tideswell in Derbyshire, in the description of which, as inserted in the third volume of the Beauties of England and Wales, pages, 454, 455, I attempted to assign the cause of the ebbing and flowing of the water; and as no better explanation has yet appeared, it may not be misplaced, to insert it again here ; as the principles on which the water flows and ebbs, must be the same in all wells similarly situated. " This curious phenomenon does not appear to have been satisfactorily explained ; as the principles on which the Syphon acts, will only account for the intermittent flowing of the water, the cause of its ebbing being still unresolved. The opinion of a second syphon, as ingeniously advanced by a moderm traveller 3., which begins to act only when the water rises, or is near its height, is
inconsistent with the appearances at the well, as the water continues to ebb for sixty or eighty seconds after its decrease has left a
sufficient opening for the admission of air into the supposed
reservoir in the hill. Now, admitting the existence of one natural
syphon, may we not account for the return of the water, by supposing an interior cavity, on a level somewhat lower than the passages
which communicate with the well, having a distinct outlet, but
too contracted to give issue to all the water that flows from the
syphon; the overplus will, in consequence, be discharged into
the well, where it finds vent, and flows out till the syphon has
ceased to act. When this happens the interior cavity, no longer
receiving more water than its distinct aperture can carry off, be«
gins to empty; and receiving back that portion of the water from
the well which lies above the communicating passages, discharges
it by its own outlet."

3. See an original Journal of a “Three Weeks Tour to the Lakes”
by a Gentleman of the University of Oxford, published in the sixth volume of Mavor's British Tourist.

4. Hurtley's Malham in Craven
From Settle it will be found about eight miles over the moors to Gordale ; but it will be difficult to hit the way without a guide. A post-chaise may be had at the Golden Lion, at Settle; aud if the traveller can get John Armstead, an intelligent man, who knows the country well, to attend him, the pleasantness of his journey will be increased. It is about sixteen miles with a carriage from Settle to Gordale; but those who come from Skipton, must turn into the road to Malham at Hellyfield. At Malham is a public-house, which affords but slender viands.

5. Here Nature ofters one of the finest general ideas in the world ; but the student, in sketching these scenes, must preserve a great breadth in the rocks, for the sake of simplicity, as a boldness of handling is essentially necessary to such wild views. A few great and simple lines will mark the contours, and a slight wash of Indian ink will most expeditiously give the breadths; whilst a tender tinge of Prussian blue, combined with the ink, will easily make the more remote parts recede, provided the blue is added in proportion to the distance. The right-hand canopy, including the waterfall, presents a fine upright view, which shape is the best calculated for the disposition of these rocks. Some of the masses will require their forms to be a little improved.

6. In a cause between Mr. Chambers, a merchant, and the Lord Mayor of London, for trespass and false imprisonment, on account of the levying of ship-money, Sir R. Berkeley, one of the Judges of the King's Bench, declared, " That no act of Parliament could bind the King, not to command away his subjects' goods and money." Neat's History of the Puritans, Vol. If. p. 175

7. Mr. William Lister, slain at the battle of Tadcaster, left two sons and a daughter. One of the sons travelling through that town many years afterwards, was inquisitive after the place of his father's sepulture. The sexton, who was then making a grave in the choir, told him it was thereabouts. He staid for further satisfaction; and, upon taking up a skull, they found in it the bullet that had given the fatal wound. This mortifying and unexpected object, made such an impression upon the gentleman, that he died shortly afterwards. History of York.>

8. This is testified by Clarendon, Whitelocke, and others.

9. Burnet relates the following anecdote of Lambert, which he says he had of Ingoldsby. When he was taken, the people were in crouds, and shouting for the success. "This reminds me (said Lambert, with great good-humour) of what Cromwell once said to us both near this very place, as we were going with a body of officers after our troops, marching into Scotland in the year 1650, the people, as now, shouting, and wishing us success. I observed to Cromwell, I was glad to see we had the nation on our side. Cromwell answered, Do not trust to that ; for these very people would shout as much, if you and I were going to be hanged. Lambert said to Ingoldsby, now he looked on himself as in a fair way to that, and began to think Cromwell prophesied."
History of his own Times, Vol. I. p. 85

10. "The humble petition of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, sheweth, that your Majesty having declared your gracious pleasure to proceed only against the immediate Murderer Of your Royal Father, WE, your Majesty's most humble subjects, the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliahient, not finding Sir Henry Vane, or Colonel Lambert, to be of that number, are humble suitors to your Majesty, if they shall be attainted, yet execution as to their lives may be remitted." — Hurtley's Malham, from Commons Journal, Vol. III. p. 152

11. Hurtley

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