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Winterburn History Timeline

A collection of notes and document extracts assembled from a wide variety of sources, forming an historic timeline of events which had an affect on Winterburn. It contains many interesting facts and references to individuals, providing a brief, but useful, history of Winterburn.

Before1400 : 1400-1550 : 1550-1700 : 1700-1800 : 1800 onward


Pre-history
Near the summit of Banks Hill, to the north - east of Friars Head are three ancient mounds. Excavations found shards of an urn/beaker and burnt fragments of human bone. The Craven museum catalogue ascribes a Bronze age origin. Also there is a faintly discernable rectangle 80 x 90 having a tumulus close to its east side. (Banks Hill is not near Friars Head, does he mean Scarnber, this has three mounds, labelled Giants Graves and called pillow mounds, which were used for breeding rabbits, date unknown). Harry M. Gill - The History of Flasby.

1086 : Domesday Book
Land of Roger of Poitou
In Winterburn Thorfinnr had 3 carucates of land taxable, Leuetat, 3c; Flasby, 4c: (little) Newton, 2c; Horton (in Ribblesdale), 2c; and Selside,1c.

Roger of Poitou - Domesday gives his surname in the Latinised form of Pictavensis of Poitou this is equivalent to Old French Peytevin; the modern form is the surname Petwin - Family name changed to Roger le Peitevin. He had extensive lands in Yorkshire until 1102 when he supported Robert against Henry 1, his English property was given to Stephen, Count de Blois (see J.F.A.Mason Roger de Montgomery and his sons, 1067-1102, Transactions of the Royal Historical Soc. 5th series, 13(1963), 1-28)
Leutat possibly - Leuetac, Leofgeats oak, a lost village subsequently part of Winterburn also Selsat now Skeldgate Skeld would seem be the name of the hill upon which Hetton stands.

1155 -1190 : Chartulary of Furness Abbey
Gift to Furness Abbey - the whole of Winterburn and common in the wood and pasture of Flasby, granted by William Graindeorge, and his brothers Roger and William? for which he received from the monks eighty marks and three palfreys (horses). They undertook to acquit the land out of duty to the King. This gift was confirmed by King Henry II between 1156 and 1166. Further confirmation was afforded when the chief overlord Roger de Mowbray notified the Archbishop of York and others that he had ratified the gift of the whole of Winterburn and rights in the wood and pasture of Flasby, this he did in particular, for the souls of his parents Nigel and Gundrea.

1166
William Graindeorge (Grain de Or) held half a knights fee in the new feoffment of Roger de Mowbray. (Red Bk. Exch., p421.) This lay in Flasby and Winterburn, in the parish of Gargrave.

1175
Partition of the barony of William de Percy between husbands of his two daughters, Earl of Warwick and Jocelyn (of Louvain) at the Easter exchequer next after peace was concluded between the King and his sons.

Hec servicia militum et dominii remonstrant comiti de Ada (filio) Norm(anni) cum Willelmo Grandeorge et cum Petro j. militis
Geregraue in Craven cum omnibus pertinenciis omnium istorum predictorum sunt de part Jocelini

Graindeorge holds fee in the de Mowbray fee. 28 carucates constituted a knights fee.
Fee an estate in land (in England always a heritable estate) held on condition of homage and service to a superior lord, by whom it is granted and in whom the ownership remains; to fief, feudal benefice. To take (a persons) fee = to become his vassal. To feoff (one person) to the use of (another) = to invest with the legal estate, subject to an obligation to allow the use to (the other person).
Carucate - as much as could be tilled with one plough (with its team of 8 oxen) in a year. - Acreage varied according to system of tillage. If the land lay in three arable common fields and the carucate according contained 180 acres, 60 for fallow, 60 for winter corn and 60 for spring corn. Commonly only the land under plough was reckoned the fallow being thrown into common pasterage. Hence in ancient deeds the normal carucate is either 120 acres or 80 acres by the Norman number (5 score to the hundred) and 144 acres or 96 acres by the English number (6 score to the hundred). A bovate contained 18 acres - a carucate contained eight bovates and eight carucates make a knights fee.

1216 : Furness Abbey Coucher Gift by William?

All that land which is between Eshton Beck above Brocholecliff, (Brockabank) which is near to this land extending to the south and there across to Eshton Beck. Also two acres of land in the field of Flasby and all that goes with it, these two acres are on the north side near to Longlands which are near to the chapel (which was formerly built there and which my father gave to the aforementioned monks in perpetual alms), also thirteen acres of land in the field of Flasby of which eleven lie in the two cultivated fields which are called Langelandes of Thorneheved (Longlands of Thornhead) and two others lie on the north side next to those of Langelandes which are near to the place of the chapel which was there, and extend to the track which leads from Flasby to Winterburn as far as Langelandes

1221
William de Arches gave ten loads of turf a year for warming the poor, who were entertained at the gates of Winterburn Grange. William de Arches was not a local but benefactor of the Abbey. Another custom of the Abbey was to provide a resting place or hospital for elderly or infirm benefactors. William de Grandeorge gave his manors up to his son (also William) and went to live at Furness, intending to spend the rest of his life there, and receiving from his son 7 marks a year. The son willingly agreed to this but after a time the father grew tired of life at Furness. Perhaps it was home sickness which brought him back to Flasby where he spent the rest of his life "as a guest and not as a lord". .

1246 : Fines made at York
On the Octave of St. Martin, 31 Henry before Roger of Thurkelby (Thurgelby), Gilbert of Preston, Master Simon of Wauton, John Cobbeham (Cobham), Justices in Eyre, and other lieges of the Lord King there then present.
MCCXLII.-- Between William, Abbot of Furneys, by John of Kancefeud his attorney, plaintiff, and William Greyndorge, impedient: as to 6 carucates of land in Wynterburn.*
The right of the Abbot and his church of Furneys, as of the gift of his predecessors and the church from the ancestors of William, whose heir he is which gift William confirms; as in demesnes, woods, plains, meadows, pastures, waters, ways, paths, moors, marshes, turbaries, etc., by the bounds following :

... beginning from Fretheburghestances as far as an old dyke that goes south and from that dyke to the next sike to the south and thence to the path that leads form Fretheburghestanses towards Eston; and from that path to the valley that is between Erneshou and Ernesclyve and descends through the meadow to the water of Wynterburn; and thence, going up the said water, as far as Synnyngesdal and from Synnyngesdal as far as Estonetern; and thence to Landesmodesgile and so to the sike on the west side of Akerbothine and thence to Kempeleye; and from Kempeleye up through Stangile and from Stangile as far as Stanhou over High and Middle Wytes: and from Stanhou over Wytes, by the brow (cilium) of Wytes, as far as the head of Uluesgile; and so through Uluesgil as the sike goes down into Langile and thence to Spottesdal and from Spottesdal as far as Fretheburghestances. William also grants to the said Abbot and his church 1 carucate, 3 bovates and 27 acres, of land 2 tofts and 2 crofts, in Flasceby; to wit:-- II acres of land in 2 cultures called Langelandes of Thornhouset; 1 acre under Ernesclyve with a piece of land of the width of that acre lying next to it to the west; 2 acres of land lying next to Langelandes to the north; II acres of land lying in the 2 cultures called Langelandes of Thornhoset; 2 acres of land lying next the said cultures to the north; a carucate of land, called Hetuneholm; 2 bovates of land nearer the land of Hugh son of William, lying everywhere to the sun, with the toft and croft to the said 2 bovates belonging; a bovate of land lying everywhere next to the said 2 bovates to the sun with the toft and croft thereto belonging; and all the land within (infra) the bounds underwritten, to wit :-- between Estonebergh and the land that William son of John gave to the Abbots predecessors on Brokholeclyf and in length as much as the arable land extends to the south and thence as far as into Estonebek; and likewise all the land that lies in breadth from Crosflat to the land that the said William son of John in the first instance gave to the Abbots predecessors and thence to Estonebergh, and, in length, extends to the wendal on Brocholeclyf; with all the wendal as far as Estonebergh and so between Estonebergh and Brokholeclyf as far as Estonebek.


William also grants, as far as he can, that the Abbot and his sucessors may have common pasture for their cattle of all kinds in Flasceby; and likewise their reasonable estover in his wood of Flasceby, for husbote, haybote and burning, so much as pertains to the lands and holdings of the Abbot and his successors in Wynterburne and Flasceby. To hold to the Abbot, his successors and church, in frankalmoign quit of all secular service and demand forever So that it may be lawful for the Abbot, his successors and the Monks and Brethren of the said church and all their men, with all their cattle etc., to have free entry, transit and egress, over the lands of William and his heirs without let or gainsay, without damage to William and his heirs in their corn, meadows and enclosures, for ever. Warranty. The Abbot receives William and his heirs into all benefactions and prayers hereafter to be done in his church aforesaid for ever. (Case 264, File 41, No. 1.)

Throughout the Abbey records the Graingers were overseers of the Abbey farms at a distance. (c.f. the Procters - stewards of the Abbey lands of Fountains, in Craven.) Was the first Graindorge sent by the Abbot of Furness to be the overseer of Winterburn/Flasby lands? And if so how does he hold the Fee and then give land to the Abbey?

*At York, November 1246, William Grayndorge gives 20s. For leave to concord with the Abbot of Furneys in a plea of warranty of charter; surety the Abbot. (assize Roll 1045, m. 53.) See Furness Coucher book (Chetham Soc. N.S. Vol. 76, p. 434).

1268 : Yorkshire fines
Between John the Bover of Wynterburn, Margaret his wife and Alice her sister, claimants, and Hugh, Abbot of Furneis tenant: as to a carucate of land in Wynterburn. The right of the abbot; to wit, whatsoever Robert de Flasceby grandfather of Margaret and Alice, his heirs, once held in the fields of Wynterburn. The Abbot grants John, Margaret and Alice, the messuage in Flasceby once held by Beatrix daughter of Hugh; to hold them for their lives, of the Abbot, his successors and church. On the death of John, Margaret and Alice, to revert, quit of their heirs, to the Abbot, His successors and church. The Abbot also gives 6 marks of silver. (Yorkshire fines p152 - Henry II )

1277 : Kirkby's inquisition
Survey of England by Kings treasurer John de Kirkby, who enquired according to the ancient custom by inquests or verdicts of juries, concerning the fees held either immediately of the King or of others who held of the King. in capite. A William Greyndorge holds 6 carucates in Flasby and Winterburn of the Mowbray fee. (Knights Fees 31 EDW 1 - Feudal Aids, vi, 111)

1281
Edward I granted to the monks of Furness free warren (hunting) in their demense lands of Winterburn, Flasby and Hetton.

1301
A regulation of the Cistercian order was made (not this date), that disputes between different houses should be settled within the order by other Abbots, and that houses should not be placed to close to each other. The Abbey of Sawley had a grange at Stainton and when the Furness Monks established one at Winterburn only five miles away, the former house had a grievance. The Abbots of Byland and Kirkstall, however, being appointed by the Abbot of Citeaux to decide the matter allowed Furness to retain the Winterburn grange. The parson of Gargrave was involved in a dispute around this time, he, Adam de Osgodeby contested that Winterburn tithes should be paid to Furness and not Abbot of Salley, probably the same dispute.

1304
Monk Brother John de Swynesheved was granger of Winterburn.

1316 : Nomina Villarum
A national record made for Edward II, being a record of the Lords of the Manor for each parish. Under Eston (Eshton which presumably then included Winterburn ) appear Johannes de Eston, Willelmus de Malghum and the Abbot of Furness.
The Abbots were lords of the townships of Eshton and Hetton. The following places appear in their rentals - Winterburn Hall, Winterburn Town, Freehead, Cowper Cotes, Newfield, Cowhouse, Eshton, Flasby and Airton.

1329
Dated at Salley on April 4th 1329 and at Furness on the 8th.

Whereas a question had arisen between the abbot and convent of Salley, rectors of the parish church of Gairgrave on the one part, and the abbot and convent of Furnes on the other, concerning the tithes of sheaves of lands of the manor of Wynterburn within the bounds of the said parish, at length in the convocation of the abbots of the province of York held at York on the Wednesday, iv kal. April (March 29), 1329, the venerable fathers, the abbots of Fountains, Byland (Bellalanda), Newminster, Calder, Kirkstall, Jervaulx (Jerouall), Holme, Meaux, Rufford (Rughford), and Roche being present and intervening at the special command of the abbot of Citeaux for the sake of peace and the preservation of the unity of the order, it was unanimously agreed that thee abbot and convent of Salley and their successors in the name of the church of Geirgrave should take fully the tithes of their lands and cultures within the bounds of the said parish, whether they were cultivated at the hands or expense of the hands of the abbot and convent Furnes or of any other, namely, of a carucate of land in the vill of Flasceby called Howploghelandes, of four bovates of land in the same vill lying between the demense land of William Grayndorge and the said carucate, of two and a half acres in Arnecliff, of one acre of land at the head of Langeheuedland, of another culture calld Skarneberghe, and of six acres of land adjacent called Ouerfurscotes; and in respect of the tithes of the remaining lands and cultures of the abbot and convent of Furnes within the bounds of the said parish, the abbot and convent of Furnes and their successors should pay yearly to the abbot and convent of Salley and their successors 4 marks of silver from the manor of Wynterburn in equal portions at Michaelmas and Easter. If the abbot and convent of Furnes should demise the whole of the manor of Wynterburn with all lands and cultures and appurtenances to other persons, or if they should retain the said manor with any portion of arable land not exceeding eighty acres, the residue of the lands and cultures being demised, the abbot and convent granted that during the time of the demise the payment of 4 marks should wholly cease, and the tithes of the demised lands and cultures would wholly belong and be paid to the abbot and convent of Salley by right of their said church. The abbot and convent of Furnes bound themselves and all their goods, especially their manor of Wynterburn to abide by the award. The abbot and convent of Salley granted for themselves and their successors and their church of Geirgrave that the abbot and convent of Furnes and their successors should have the fruits of the tithes of sheaves of their remaining lands and cultures belonging to their manor of Wynterburn, the lands and cultures above specified being excepted, renouncing any right they might have.
(Soc. Antiquaries of London, MS. 615.)

1368
A plea illustrates difficulties caused by sub-infeudation. The escheator in Yorkshire, having found, as he supposed, that the Manor or Grange of Winterburn was held directly of the King by knights fee service, took it into the Kings hands on the death of Abbot Alexander de Walton. It had formerly been held, he said, of John de Mowbray now deceased, by knights fee services and suit, to the court of Burton-in-Lonsdale, but Mowbray, having in his generosity released those feudal services, the Manor must now be held of the King-in-chief. The new Abbot of Furness replied that he held of the heir of William Graindorge, who held of John de Mowbray. The jury found a verdict for the Abbot and the King accordingly restored possession, and also the profits he had received while the Manor was in his hands.

1379 : Poll tax returns - Wappentagium de Staynclyff

FFLASBY (Flasby with Winterburn)
Nicholas Grandage, Armatus
xl d
Thomas Grandage & uxor
vj d
Thomas de Esseton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Ffawnell & uxor
iiij d
Doket Flasby & uxor
iiij d
Adam de Kechyne & uxor
iiij d
Robertus filius Ade & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Kerke & uxor
iiij d
Nicholaus Pape & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Swenden & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Sponer & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Newcoume & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Cowhyrd & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Hall & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Horton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Turner & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Browne & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de cote & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Bonby & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Addeson & uxor
iiij d
Adam Waynman & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Geldhyrd & uxor
iiij d
Adam Bradbelt & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Boneby & uxor
iiij d
Adam de Cote & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Walker & uxor
vj d
Henricus Darwent, Walker & uxor
vj d
Henricus de Cote, Draper & uxor
vj d
Johannes Staple, Carpenter & uxor
vj d
Johannes filius Roberti, Webster & uxor
vj d
Agnes Padmire doghter, Webster & uxor
vj d
Johannes filius Thome Grandage
iiij d
Agnes filia Willelmi
iiij d
Amya filia ejus
iiij d
Agnes Noryse
iiij d
Willelmus Walkerman
iiij d
Robertus Grandage
iiij d
Ricardus Geliot
iiij d
Alicia Bascholf
iiij d
Robertus Alanson
iiij d
Elena Robyndoghter
iiij d
Johannes Doket
iiij d
Thomas serviens Pape
iiij d
Robertus Darwent
iiij d
Edmundus serviens Ade Bradbelt
iiij d
Willelmus filius Roberti filius Alani
iiij d
Henricus serviens Ade de Cote
iiij d
Adam serviens Ade de Cote
iiij d
Matilda Browndoghter
iiij d
Johannes filius Thone de Edelston
iiij d
Cicilia (filia)? Ade Bradbelt
iiij d
Matilda Sponer
iiij d
Summa
xxj.s x d

1399
The 6th Lord Mowbray (Thomas) also Lord Segrave also created Duke of Norfolk (29-7-1397) born 1365, died Venice 1399. In his will/inquisition (Inquisitions post mortem, Chancery, Henry IV, file 16.) there are references to 73 villages that paid him rent and he is shown to hold:-

Fee in Wytrebr 100s (income per year)
1 Fee in Flasceby, Escheton
1/6 Fee in Lowkelandes

G C Todd, Winterburn


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