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Subsidy Rolls - Malhamdale Poll Tax 1379

A bewildering variety of taxes were levied to fill the coffers of Medieval monarchs, who were frequently desperate for money to wage wars and squander in other ways. Taxes have left behind many detailed records, mainly of the rich, but some forms of taxation, such as the Poll Tax, extended right to the lowest levels of society.
The largest collection of 12th -17th century taxation records is held at the National Archives, listed under class E 179 and are traditionally known as the subsidy rolls. A National Archives leaflet External Website logo to the various forms of taxation is available, and they also provide a searchable E 179 index. External Website logo This can be searched by place, date and other categories, to provide descriptions of the records, lists of places covered, and details of published texts, but there are no online transcripts of the actual documents.
Poll taxes were essentially taxes levied on individuals rather than property or wealth, with everyone over a certain age, and not otherwise exempt, being liable to pay a given amount. As a result, the surviving records of such taxes generally include a rather higher proportion of the population, and surviving documents record the names of a great many individuals and frequently include details of occupations and relationships.. The most famous such taxes were undoubtedly those granted in 1377, 1379 and 1380, the last of these being a major factor in the outbreak of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381. In 1377 a tax of a groat a head was voted by both clergy and laity and in 1379 the tax was again levied on everyone over 16 years old, but using a graduated scale, with John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster paying ten marks, down to the peasants paying one groat each. After the rising of 1381 the poll tax was only used to raise money from aliens, and the next general poll tax wasn't imposed until 1513. During the reign of Charles II money was obtained in this way on several occasions, causing much resentment. After 1688 poll taxes became a favourite means of raising money for the waging of the war with France. Sometimes a single payment was asked for the year; at other times quarterly payments were required. The poll-tax of 1698 did not produce as much as was anticipated, and it was the last of its kind in England until it was tried again in the late 20th century, causing another uprising.
All known surviving receipts and assessments from the fourteenth-century taxes have been transcribed or calendared by Carolyn Fenwick, and the Yorkshire taxes are included in The Poll Taxes of 1377, 1379, and 1381: Wiltshire - Yorkshire Pt. 3, External Website logo published by the British Academy Records of Social and Economic History, 1998-2004.

Malhamdale Poll Tax 1379

In 1379 this tax was levied on the head of each person above fifteen years old, at the rate of 1/- for each person. In most places the collectors assessed the number of shillings each village must pay by the number of 'heads' and shared this sum amongst the household. A rich man might pay considerably more than his shilling, and a poor man correspondingly less, And in Malhamdale you can see that the majority paid fourpence only, with only Johannes de Malghome of Calton paying the much larger sum of 6s 8d.
The following information and lists for the Malhamdale townships is taken from The Craven and Northwest Yorkshire Highlands External Website logo by Harry Speight and published in 1892. It is not quite certain where some of the Malhamdale area townships are listed as there are no seperate listings for Bordley, Winterburn or Malham Moor, but it is possible they are listed under Hetton, Flasby and Malham respectively. GENUKI provides a complete listing of the 1379 Subsidy Rolls for Yorkshire External Website logo if you wish to examine the adjacent townships.

A LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF CRAVEN AND BORDERING DISTRICTS, FIVE CENTURIES AGO BEING THE POLL TAX RETURNS OF THE WAPENTAKES OF STAINCLIFFE AND EWECROSS, 2ND RICHARD II (AD 1379 )

This famous Tax, which was the cause of an ill-starred revolt, was framed and levied on the accession of King Richard II as a means of raising funds to re-furnish the Treasury coffers, which had been emptied on French battlefields, and to maintain Calais and other maritime towns of France, then in the possession of England. It was in the form of a graduated poll-tax ranging from 10 marks, at which the Duke of Lancaster was charged, down to 4d, on all lay persons above the age of 16 years, notorious mendicants excepted . The clergy were separately taxed. All married couples were charged at a single rate. These ancient Rolls are especially valuable, as they exhibit in great measure the state of society at the time ; who were the Knights and Esquires ; who the merchants, artificers &c., and what the relative size and importance of the villages comprised. From these simple lists we gather the number and names of the married and unmarried inhabitants, what their degree and avocation, although these are not always stated. The same rank or trade is, moreover, not always charged alike, which must have been regulated by the income or standing of the individual. Thus, an Esquire was usually rated at 20s., but sometimes at 6s . 8d ., and even 3s. 4d . Farmers of manors and granges were charged 2s . ; tradesmen and artificers commonly 6d ., but occasionally 1s . ; innkeepers, 2s. and 1s . ; while the great mass of the people, who were engaged in agriculture, paid a groat, or 4d .
Entries of the same trade are often described under different names, e .g., a smith is sometimes a mareschal, ferour, orfaber ; a tailor, cissor, tailliour, or taliar ; a butcher, bocher, flesher, carnifex, or fleshewer ; a grocer, spicer ; a joiner, sagher ; a shoemaker, sutor ; a mason, cimentor ; a builder or waller, douber or dauber ; a thatcher, theker ; a weaver, textor or webster ; a cloth-fuller, fullo or walker ; a dyer, tinctor or lystar ; a merchant, mercator ; a peddler pedder. Other occupations, such as hosteler, herbeiour, miller, diker, slater, nayler, glasier, &c., are obvious and self-explanatory.

 
AYRETON (Airton)
Johannes de Preston senior & uxor
iiij d
Johannes del Myre, Theker & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Preston junior & uxor
iiij d
Johannes filius Roberti & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Porter & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Scothorp & uxor
iiij d
Isabella uxor Thome
iiij d
Willelmus Gose & uxor
iiij d
Adam filius Willelmi & uxor
iiij d
Arnaldus de Ayreson & uxor
iiij d
Robertus Hynt & uxor
iiij d
Agnes uxor Johannis Spenser
iiij d
Johannes de Ayreton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes filius Willelmi & uxor
iiij d
Johannes filius Thome & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Smyth, Faber & uxor
vj d
Johannes Wyndill & uxor
iiij d
Seruient - Willelmus Porter
iiij d
Emma Fox
iiij d
Anabella Grafdog
iiij d
Cicilia de Thornton
iiij d
Summa
vij s---- x d
 
CALTON
Johannes de ffrekylyngton, Marchant & uxor
ij d
Johannes de Malghome, ffrankeleyn & uxor
vj s----viij d
Ricardus Wilkokson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Haughenlyt & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Hulwath & uxor
iiij d
Robertus Molyff & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Buneby & uxor
iiij d
Rogerus de Calton & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Chese & uxor
iiij d
Henricus de Preston, Spicer & uxor
xij d
Robertus Kyng & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Paytfyn & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Kyng, Hosteler & uxor
xij d
Johannes Kyngson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas filius Ricardi Wykok & uxor
iiij d
Henricus Tylnay & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus seruiens Willelmi de Boneby & uxor
iiij d
Alicia Jolyff
iiij d
Cecilia Hulwath
iiij d
Thomas Kyngson
iiij d
Summa
xv s------d
 
CALDCONYNGSTON (Coniston Cold)
Willelmus Grundolff, Cissor & uxor
vj d
Jordan de Rode & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Turpyn & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Mytton, Sutor & uxor
vj d
Willelmus Hardy & uxor
iiij d
Mater Willelmi Hardi
iiij d
Robertus Turpyn & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Doeggson, ffullo & uxor
vj d
Johannes Maymond, Mercator & uxor
xij d
Johannes Clerkson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Clerkson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes filius Thome Dykson & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Clerkson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Clerkson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Dykson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas de Twaytes & uxor
iiij d
Adam Jonson & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Yttyng & uxor
iiij d
Robertus Clerkson & uxor
iiij d
Anabella Grane
iiij d
Johannes filius Willelmi & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Rayner, Couper & uxor
vj d
Summa
ix s--- iiij d
 
ESCHCETON (Eshton)
Johannes de Grene & uxor
iiij d
Thomas at le Townhend & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Symson & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Dauson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Wreghson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Newton & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus filius Henrici & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Judson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Bolton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes filius Roberti & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Langcast & uxor
iiij d
Robertus Wreghtson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Browne & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Raper & uxor
iiij d
Seruient - Thomas seruiens Johannis Graue
iiij d
Adam Wreght
vj d
John de Escheton, Faber
iiij d
Summa
vj s--- vj d
 
HAMLYCH (Hanlith)
Ricardus del Myre, Mason & uxor
vj d
Ricardus Dawson, Walker & uxor
vj d
Johannes Walche, Smyth & uxor
vj d
Johannes seruiens Willelmi Clerke
iiij d
Summa
xxij d
 
KYRKBY (Kirkby Malham)
Willelmus Seriantson & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Kychyne & uxor
iiij d
Robertus de Poxton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Aston & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Grene & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Nableson & uxor
iiij d
Petrus del Hall & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Stothyrd & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus de Sallay & uxor
iiij d
Robertus de Stephen & uxor
iiij d
Sabyna Tottedoghter
iiij d
Agnes seruiens Willelmi Stothyrd
iiij d
Johannes Tailliour, Cissor & uxor
vj d
Thomas Walker, Fullo & uxor
vj d
Summa
v s-------d
 
BALGHOM (Malham)
Richardus de Dale & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Richardson & uxor
iiij d
Robertus de Wod & uxor
iiij d
Adam Tomson & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Hodson & uxor
iiij d
Robertus de Cote & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Walche & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Richardson & uxor
iiij d
Adam Wyllson & uxor
iiij d
Robertus Crumbok & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Steuen & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Wyndesouer & uxor
vj d
Thomas Jose & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Sallay & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Wyndesouer & uxor
vj d
Johannes Nottson & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus del Mire & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Hyne & uxor
iiij d
Adam Wylkokson & uxor
iiij d
Simon del Hall & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Dene & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus Wilkokson & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Westsydhowse & uxor
iiij d
Henricus de Grene & uxor
iiij d
Adam de Medlehewe & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Kyrkby & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Akeson & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Swyer & uxor
iiij d
Seruient - Henricus Spuner
iiij d
Henricus del Hall
iiij d
Johannes filius Ade Wylkokson
iiij d
Ricardus Wylyn
iiij d
Robertus Qwytheued
iiij d
Johannes Browne
iiij d
Johannes seruiens Ricardi Aykokson
iiij d
Henricus seruiens ejusdem
iiij d
Johannes de Crumbok
iiij d
Richardus Hardy
iiij d
Thomas Golgill
iiij d
Thomas Swyer
iiij d
Alicia de Yowdall
iiij d
Agnes Brukne (?), Textrix
vj d
Agnes Webstre, Textrix
vj d
Johannes Tailliour, Cissor
vj d
Summa
xvj s--- ij d
 
OTERBURN (Otterburn)
Willelmus de Bradlay & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Chyld & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus filius Roberti & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Medylhowe & uxor
iiij d
Ricardus filius Henrici & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Maldson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Bolyngton & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Bolyngton, Smyth & uxor
vj d
Johannes Setle & uxor
iiij d
Wllhelmus Nayler & uxor
iiij d
Henricus Jamsman & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Lamberd & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Lambhyrd & uxor
iiij d
Seruient - Johannes de Bolyngton
iiij d
Alicia de Skypton
iiij d
Matilda seruiens Johannis de Setle
iiij d
Summa
v s---- vj d
 
SCOTHRORP (Scosthrop)
Ricardus de Calton & uxor
iiij d
Thcmas Maknest & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Clerke, Scriptor & uxor
vj d
Thomas Steuenson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Pymson & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Hyne & uxor
iiij d
Adam Robynson, Cissor & uxor
vj d
Henricus Pynder & uxor
iiij d
Thomas Robyson, Faber & uxor
vj d
Seruient - Thomas filius Ade Robynson & uxor
iiij d
Matilda Yowhyrd
iiij d
Isabella Barker
iiij d
Thomas Browne
iiij d
Isabella Aylyn
iiij d
Cecilia Wylyn
iiij d
Johannes seruiens Willelmi Clerke
iiij d
Summa
v s----- x d

FFLASBY (Flasby with Winterburn)
Nicholas Grandage, Armatus
xl d
Thomas Grandage & uxor
vj d
Thomas de Esseton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Ffawnell & uxor
iiij d
Doket Flasby & uxor
iiij d
Adam de Kechyne & uxor
iiij d
Robertus filius Ade & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Kerke & uxor
iiij d
Nicholaus Pape & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Swenden & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Sponer & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Newcoume & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Cowhyrd & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Hall & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Horton & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Turner & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Browne & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de cote & uxor
iiij d
Johannes de Bonby & uxor
iiij d
Johannes Addeson & uxor
iiij d
Adam Waynman & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Geldhyrd & uxor
iiij d
Adam Bradbelt & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus de Boneby & uxor
iiij d
Adam de Cote & uxor
iiij d
Willelmus Walker & uxor
vj d
Henricus Darwent, Walker & uxor
vj d
Henricus de Cote, Draper & uxor
vj d
Johannes Staple, Carpenter & uxor
vj d
Johannes filius Roberti, Webster & uxor
vj d
Agnes Padmire doghter, Webster & uxor
vj d
Johannes filius Thome Grandage
iiij d
Agnes filia Willelmi
iiij d
Amya filia ejus
iiij d
Agnes Noryse
iiij d
Willelmus Walkerman
iiij d
Robertus Grandage
iiij d
Ricardus Geliot
iiij d
Alicia Bascholf
iiij d
Robertus Alanson
iiij d
Elena Robyndoghter
iiij d
Johannes Doket
iiij d
Thomas serviens Pape
iiij d
Robertus Darwent
iiij d
Edmundus serviens Ade Bradbelt
iiij d
Willelmus filius Roberti filius Alani
iiij d
Henricus serviens Ade de Cote
iiij d
Adam serviens Ade de Cote
iiij d
Matilda Browndoghter
iiij d
Johannes filius Thone de Edelston
iiij d
Cicilia (filia)? Ade Bradbelt
iiij d
Matilda Sponer
iiij d
Summa
xxj.s x d

Printed copies of The Craven and Northwest Yorkshire Highlands External Website logo by Harry Speight, published by Elliot Stock, London in 1892, are generally available as there was a fairly recent reprint of the book.
You can also download a free, searchable PDF copy from Archive.org External Website logo

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